Author: Mezie Ethelbert

An inquisitive civil engineer with wide interests in different aspects of civil engineering.

Most man-made structures bear on soil. A soil has a finite strength and not all soil can withstand all kinds of loads/pressure. Therefore, before any structure is sited on any soil, there should be proper investigation of the soil to ensure that the design to be made for the structure should be safe, economical design (through selection of appropriate foundation type) and to reduce as much as possible difficulties in construction due to the nature of the soil. Soil investigation is one of the most important aspect of construction works especially in areas with bad soil. Through soil investigation, the…

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The commonest type of slab used in building construction is the solid slab. It is also the one that easy step in structural design. On special occasions, there are other types of slab used in buildings for one or more of the following reasons: 1. Circulation 2. Size of live load 3. Control of deflection 4. Aesthetics 5. Function 6. Client’s appeal, etc Among these slabs, we have: FLAT SLABS The new European unified code for the design of reinforced concrete element, Eurocode 2 (EC 2) defines flat slab as a slab supported by columns, that is beamless reinforced concrete…

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The planning stage of setting-out process requires the assemblage of materials and instrument required for the process. The following equipment/instrument are required for setting-out. a. Steel tapes: these are more suitable type of setting out instrument because they are not subject to the same degree of stretching as the fibrous or nylon tape. However, the accuracy of the setting-out depends on the condition of the tape and expertise of the user. b. Levels: automatic levels are usually more commonly used because they produce better reliable results. c. Theodolites: these are used in surveying to determine vertical and horizontal angles by…

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Building orientation can be defined as the way a building is positioned in relation to the prevailing wind and path of sun direction. The earth is made up of four cardinal directions: North, South, East and West. Normally, the sun rises in the east and sets in the west regardless of country or continent. The distance from the equator and the path of the sun determines not only the time of sunrise and sunset. The farther a country is from the equator, the more oblique the sun’s path is to the horizon. And this causes a different duration that a…

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The aim of every client is to save as much more money as possible in a project. For this reason, clients have a proposed amount for a given project and sometimes when estimated cost exceeds this amount, the client can decide not to proceed with the project or hire another service provider for his project who can give good service at lower cost. It is possible to save as much money in construction as possible. This is not a call to cut corners but doing quality work with significant savings. Though a tight budget does not give you freedom to…

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